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Design Categories of fire Alarm system

There are many types of fire alarm systems each suited to different building types and applications to protect both buildings and occupants.

A fire alarm system can vary dramatically in both price and complexity, from a single panel with a single call point detector and sounder in a small commercial property to an addressable fire alarm system with many devices in a multi-occupancy building.

The categories of fire alarm systems are M if they are manual systems, L if they are designed to protect life and P to protect buildings.

Type M Design:

Manual systems consist of basic electrical systems having a control panel, call points and audible warning devices.

These systems are reliant on the occupants of the building discovering the fire and acting to warn others by operating the system.

These systems form the basic requirement for places of employment with no sleeping risk.

Type L1 Design:

A category L1 system is designed for the protection of life and consists of a control panel, call points and automatic detection and audible warning devices installed throughout all areas of the building including any roof spaces and voids.

The aim of these systems is providing the earliest warning to achieve the longest time available for occupants to escape.

These systems can be installed to any building but would typically be appropriate for residential care premises, hotels or wherever there is a sleeping risk situation.

Type L2 Design.

A category L2 system is designed for the protection of life and consists of a control panel, call points and automatic detection and audible warning devices installed in escape routes and rooms adjoining escape routes identical to an L3 design, with additional detection to areas or rooms considered to be a higher hazard level or high risk (e.g. a boiler room, kitchen or as specified).

The aim of these systems is providing warning early enough for all occupants to escape safely other than those possibly in the room of the fire origin prior to the escape routes becoming impassable.

These types of system can be installed to any building but would be fitted to residential or commercial premises.

Type L3 Design.

A category L3 system is designed for the protection of life and consists of a control panel, call points and automatic detection and audible warning devices installed in escape routes and rooms adjoining escape routes.

The aim of these systems is providing warning early enough for all occupants to escape safely other than those possibly in the room of the fire origin prior to the escape routes becoming impassable.

These types of system can be installed to any building but would be fitted to offices, residential or commercial premises.

Type L4 Design.

A category L4 system is designed for the protection of life and consists of a control panel, call points and automatic detection and audible warning devices installed to escape routes, circulation areas and spaces including corridors and staircases.
The aim of these systems is providing warning for all occupants of smoke within escape routes.

These types of system can be installed to any building but would be fitted to offices, residential or commercial premises.

Type L5 Design.

A category L5 system is designed for the protection of life and consists of a control panel, call points and automatic detection and audible warning devices that could be considered the ‘custom’ category, relating to some special requirement or departure from normal guidance that cannot be covered by any other category based upon a local need for detection ranging from a single detector to a room to many devices to cover where structural fire resistance / protection is less than that normal for that type of building.

These types of system might or might not provide similar protection to L2, L3, and L4 designs.

These types of system can be installed to any building as necessary or required.

Type P1 Design.

A category P1 system is designed for the protection of property only and consists of a control panel and automatic detection throughout all areas of the building including any roof spaces and voids without exception,
call points and audible warning devices may or not be installed.

These type of system are provided to offer the earliest possible warning of a fire so the minimum time between initial ignition and the arrival of fire fighters is achieved.

These type of system usually have remote monitoring to summon the Fire Authorities automatically in the event of an activation.

These systems can be installed to any building or premises for insurance purposes or typically isolated storage facilities or warehouses.

Type P2 Design.

A category P2 system is designed for the protection of property only, more specifically a part of the property (e.g. computer suite / telecommunications room,) and may be stand alone or linked back to a main house or building fire alarm system, as such it could consist of a control panel, call points, automatic detection and audible warning devices.

These systems are provided to offer protection to the areas containing vital equipment or records to the operating business to minimise cost / disruption in the event of a fire.

These types of system can be installed to any building or premises.

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